scribes in ancient egypt

The demotic scribes used rush pens which had stems thinner than that of a reed (2 mm). Egyptian civilization - Writing - Scribes. Egyptian scribes regularly appear in tomb depictions of everyday activities; recording the biennial cattle census, measuring the fields for taxation purposes, checking deliveries of harvested grain, weighing precious metals. Scribes in Ancient Egypt Scribes played an important role in early Egypt. They do not store any information about you other than that which is strictly required for navigation and function, and I have no aceess to any of the data. As a result, scribal training could take up to a decade to complete. Approximately 4,000 manuscripts have been discovered from women's convents from late medieval Germany. Many books survived from this period. Tracing ten key biographies, Ancient Egyptian Scribes examines how these figures kept both the administrative life and cultural memory of Egypt running. Ancient Egyptian art shows scribes working while seated cross-legged on the ground. This was all accomplished in a monastic writing room called a scriptorium which was kept very quiet so scribes could maintain concentration. The fragments also confirm that the students included children from the lower ranks (such as the children of a stonecutter) and at least one woman. He was the scribe of the gods who held knowledge of scientific and moral laws. Importance of Scribes in Ancient Egypt In ancient Egypt scribes were thought to be essential to the continuation of their culture. However, many scribal positions were to some degree hereditary. The role of a scribe was an important one in Ancient Egypt. Over the next decade, more scrolls were found in caves and the discoveries became known collectively as the Dead Sea Scrolls. It was polished with a piece of wood or ivory and was then ready to use. It is no exaggeration to say that we owe most of our knowledge of ancient Egypt to the work of her scribes. They worked every day except for the Sabbath. Scribes were important people in Ancient Egypt. [13][page needed], The Jewish scribes used the following rules and procedures while creating copies of the Torah and eventually other books in the Hebrew Bible.[14]. Your choices will not impact your visit. Renowned calligraphers, they produce the Hebrew Torah scrolls and other holy texts. She collaborated with other scribes in the production of other books. Each column of writing could have no less than 48, and no more than 60, lines. In truth, very little happened in ancient Egypt which did not involve a scribe in some manner. Biblical literature became a tool that legitimated and furthered the priests' political and religious authority. As a result scribal training could take up to a decade to complete. Writing was a highly regarded skill and closely associated with the divine. These contain the earliest recordings of societal thought and exploration of ideas in some length and detail. There are depictions of scribes (identified by the traditional scribal crossed legged pose and their scribal equipment) dating back to as early as the Old Kingdom. [28], There are several hundred women scribes that have been identified in Germany. Numerous copies of each book were discovered, including 25 copies of the book of Deuteronomy. Scribes generally wrote in red or black ink, with red ink being employed for important or magical terms and by tutors when correcting the work of their students (a practice which exists to this day!) About Ancient Egyptian Scribes. One of the most important professionals in ancient Egypt was a person educated in the arts of writing (both hieroglyphics and hieratic scripts, as well as the demotic script from the second half of the first millennium BCE, which was mainly used as shorthand and for commerce) and arithmetic. These technicians of the sacred were masters of hieroglyphic thinking, or heka--the proper words, in the proper sequence, with the proper intonation and the proper intent. They were part of a large task force which helped keep track of taxes, censuses and building projects. Almost all of our knowledge known to the ancient Egyptians came from work and the art of ancient Egyptian scribe.The scribes were civil servants. One of the most prominent men at this time was Ezra the scribe. She recorded the life of each person on the leaves of the sacred persea tree and was the official biographer of the pharaoh. An Ancient Egyptian version is The Dispute between a man and his Ba, which comes from the Middle Kingdom period. [25] Also, female pronouns are used in prayers in manuscripts from the late 8th century, suggesting that the manuscripts were originally written by and for female scribes. Jun 26, 2018 - for the scribes of Ancient Egypt . [10] Other Sumerian examples include the Debate between Summer and Winter where Winter wins, and disputes between the cattle and grain, the tree and the reed, silver and copper, the pickaxe and the plough, and the millstone and the gul-gul stone.[11]. [23] These re-creations were often written in calligraphy and featured rich illustrations, making the process incredibly time-consuming. Scribe was an excellent career to take. While there were other items found among the Dead Sea Scrolls not currently in the Hebrew Bible, and many variations and errors occurred when they were copied, the texts, on the whole, testify to the accuracy of the scribes. Instead, the teachers included a number of draughtsman, a chief workman, and a deputy. Most of these women can only be identified by their names or initials, by their label as "scriptrix", "soror", "scrittorix", "scriba" or by the colophon (scribal identification which appears at the end of a manuscript). You may change your settings at any time. The occupation of scribe is also one of the earliest jobs. A sticky vegetable gum was poured over the sheets to fill up spaces in the mat and it was then pounded flat with a mallet and placed under a heavy weight to dry. But newcomers did break into this elite group if they could pass the test. Ezra did not write a new bible. They had to memorize hieroglyphic symbols. The letters, words, and paragraphs had to be counted, and the document became invalid if two letters touched each other. The scribe was generally depicted carrying the tools of his trade: a wooden palette with brushes and reed pens and a roll of papyrus. Scribes and Literacy in Ancient Egypt by: Velde, Herman te 1932- Published: (1986) ; Mysticism in Pharaonic Egypt? A history of art in ancient Egypt Vol 2 (1883) The Scribe.jpg 1,564 × 1,591; 287 KB Agilika Island, located in the river at Aswan, is now the home of Philae Temple. They had to make sure that the lines were straight and the letters were the same size in each book that they copied. The profession has developed into public servants, journalists, accountants, bookkeepers, typists, and lawyers. When the son of a scribe had completed his training he would often inherit his father’s job. They delivered their own sermons, took dictation on wax tablets, and copied and illuminated manuscripts. They became members of a privileged élite who, like scribes in ancient Egypt, might look with contempt upon their fellow citizens. In an obituary found from a monastery in Rulle, describes Christina Von Haltren as having written many other books. They also copied a large amount of prayer books and other devotional manuscripts. Women scribes served as the business women of the convent. Black ink was made from soot mixed with gum, and red ink was created from this same mixture by adding the dust of red oxide. Specially trained monks, or scribes, had to carefully cut sheets of parchment, make the ink, write the script, bind the pages, and create a cover to protect the script. [21] A large scriptorium may have up to 40 scribes working. Red ink was also used to indicate titles, headings and to mark the beginning of a new section of text. How long did it take to train as a Scribe? [3], One of the most important professionals in ancient Egypt was a person educated in the arts of writing (both hieroglyphics and hieratic scripts, as well as the demotic script from the second half of the first millennium BCE, which was mainly used as shorthand and for commerce) and arithmetic. The modern view of the ancient Egyptian world is often through the lens of a scribe: the trained, schooled, literate individual who was present at many levels of Egyptian society, from a local accountant to the highest echelons of society. The hieroglyph used to signify the scribe, to write, and "writings", etc., is Gardiner sign Y3, from the category of: 'writings, games, & music'. This is a list of Egyptian scribes, almost exclusively from the ancient Egyptian periods. He was often depicted as a scribe and was responsible for recording the result of the “weighing of the heart” in the halls of judgment. Every book in the Hebrew Bible was represented except Esther. These women worked within German women's convent from the thirteenth to the early 16th century. Scribes. A large number of ostraca and papyrus dated to the New Kingdom were discovered in a pit close to the worker’s village at Deir el-Medina and many more fragments were scattered around the village itself. As early as the 11th century BCE, scribes in Ancient Israel, were distinguished professionals who would exercise functions which today could be associated with lawyers, journalists, government ministers, judges, or financiers. [30], Please expand the article to include this information. [24], Women also played a role as scribes in Anglo-Saxon England, as religious women in convents and schools were literate. He also hired scribes to work for him, in order to write down and revise the oral tradition. NOTE: These settings will only apply to the browser and device you are currently using. Many were employed at scriptoria owned by local schoolmasters or lords. The result was a short, stiff brush which was handled in the same manner as that of a calligrapher. The Ancient Egyptian scribe, or sesh, was a person educated in the arts of writing (using both hieroglyphics and hieratic scripts, and from the second half of the first millennium BCE the demotic script, used as shorthand and for commerce) and dena (arithmetics). Typically, very few students passed the exam unless they had prior training, but all those who passed, whatever their prior … Her dedication to book production for the benefit of the Wessobrunn monks and nuns eventually led to her being recognized as a local saint. It was made by slicing the yellowish-white pith of the papyrus reed into long strips and laying them out in horizontal and vertical layers to form a mat. Many pieces of correspondence include the phrase “May you be well when you hear this” which strongly implies that in some cases a scribe would actually read the documents out to its recipient – which would certainly be necessary with such a small proportion of the population being able to read or write. "It is perhaps no surprise then that one of the most respected titles in ancient Egypt was 'sesh' - 'scribe'." Seshat was the goddess of writing (and either the wife or daughter of Thoth). [22] The overall process was too extensive and costly for books to become widespread during this period. Included in these are four volumes of a six volume set of Pope Gregory the Great's Moralia in Job, two volumes of a three-volume Bible, and an illuminated copy of the Gospels. T he ancient language was written by scribes who, from a young age, went through a long apprenticeship before they mastered the skill of writing. Students would study hieroglyphics, hieratic, demotic (from around 400BC), and mathematics (“dena”), as well as writing, as this was required for many high level jobs such as architect, tax collector, and treasurer. Three were identified as literary assistants; Tyche, Herma, and Plaetoriae. [26], Most of the evidence for female scribes in the early middle ages in Rome is epigraphic. Case studies look at accountants, draughtsmen, scribes with military and dynastic roles, the authors of … Read more about Scribes in Ancient Egypt: Custodians of the Voice and Words of the Divine – Part I ; Add new comment; 1 April, 2016 - 03:54 Marilo. [23] Such books were written on parchment or vellum made from treated hides of sheep, goats, or calves. Ancient Egyptians made all kinds of records, so scribes held a wide variety of jobs. There are two obituaries that have been found that date back to the 16th century, both of the obituaries describe the women who died as a "scriba". CTRL + SPACE for auto-complete. In addition to accountancy and governmental politicking, the scribal professions branched out into literature. Scribes could also use math to tally up quantities of things like crops and tools, payments rendered and payments owed. The terms is more properly translated as “to draw” or “to create” rather than simply “to write” or “to read”. They were considered to be members of the royal court and as such did not have to pay tax, undertake military service, or perform manual labour. The books they left their legacies within were usually given to the sister of the convent and were dedicated to the abbess, or given or sold to the surrounding community. [9][page needed]. [1][2], The profession of the scribe, previously widespread across cultures, lost most of its prominence and status with the advent of the printing press. by: Wente, Edward Frank 1930- Published: (1982) In praise of ancient scribes by: Millard, Alan R. 1937- Published: (1982) The middle paragraph, word and letter must correspond to those of the original document. Diemut was credited with writing so many volumes that she single-handedly stocked the Wessobrunn's library. Thoth was the patron of scribes and was generally credited with the development of hieroglyphs. Two female scribes have been identified within the Admont Monastery; Sisters Irmingart and Regilind. There were also four women who have been identified by the title of libraria. Students would study hieroglyphics, hieratic, demotic (from around 400BC) and mathematics (“dena”) as well as writing as this was require… Due to parchment being costly, scribes often created a draft of their work first on a wax or chalk tablet. These women are united by their contributions to the libraries of women's convents. Spanish Archaeologists Try to Reconstruct Fragments of the Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead. There were powerful scribe families in ancient Egypt where the ability to write had been passed down from father to son, generation after generation. The first stories were probably creation stories and religious texts. It took as long as twelve years to train as a scribe. Scribes learned how to communicate using the hieroglyphs that were the writing of ancient Egypt. Scribes were taught how to write hieroglyphs on wood, pottery, stone, and (if they were lucky, and after lots of practice) papyrus. Scribes not only kept records, they also often played a supervisory role in society. [18][19], In the Middle Ages, every book was made by hand. Since the Wessobrunn monastery enforced its strict claustration it is presumed that these other scribes were also women. The ancient Egyptians placed huge significance on the written word. [12] Some scribes also copied documents, but this was not necessarily part of their job. These scribes worked under deadlines to complete commissioned works such as historic chronicles or poetry. The scribes of ancient Egypt devoted their lives to the writing of sacred stories. Every time a monastery would shift their order they would need to replace, correct and sometimes rewrite their texts. A scribe is a person who serves as a professional copyist, especially one who made copies of manuscripts before the invention of automatic printing. The ability to write guaranteed a superior rank in society and the possibility of career advancement. Give a mathematical proof why the solution by false position method is correct. Scribes were people in ancient Egypt (usually men) who learned to read and write. The majority of scribal students were boys from middle or upper class families, but there is also significant evidence that boys from lower class families and girls learned to write. Many of these scribes were discovered by their colophon. It was moved there in the 1960s, piece by piece, from neighbouring Philae Island, now underwater. As no document containing God's Word could be destroyed, they were stored, or buried, in a, This page was last edited on 31 December 2020, at 21:56. [29], The scribe was a common job in medieval European towns during the 10th and 11th centuries. Sofers (Jewish scribes) are among the few scribes that still do their trade by hand, writing on parchment. The end of the rush was cut obliquely and then chewed so that the fibers became separated. [29], Women's monasteries were different from men's in the period from the 13th to the 16th century. [23] The primary purpose of these scribes was to promote the ideas of the Christian Church, so they mostly copied classical and religious works. Use the problem from Rhind papirus and presented in Lecture 2 that was solved using this method. Scribes had to be familiar with the writing technology as well. [24] It typically took a scribe fifteen months to copy a Bible. See more ideas about ancient egypt, egypt, ancient. [22] They were expected to make at least one mistake per page. Corinna who was known as a storeroom clerk and scribe. The pen of a scribe was made from a thin-stemmed reed, usually around nine inches long. Among the list of Sumerian disputations is the Debate between bird and fish. Only scribes and priests were taught how to read and write. Priests who took over the leadership of the Jewish community preserved and edited biblical literature. Which cookies and scripts are used and how they impact your visit is specified on the left. The Egyptian’s hieroglyphic language is very complex, comprising of over seven hundred unique signs which could be combined to give layers of meaning. The Egyptians hieroglyphic language is very complex, comprising of over seven hundred unique signs which could be combined to give layers of meaning. Ezra read them an unfamiliar version of the Torah. [15] The Dead Sea Scrolls are currently the best route of comparison to the accuracy and consistency of translation for the Hebrew Bible because they are the oldest out of any biblical text currently known. Fourteen of Diemut's books are in existence today. A cookie which helps me track how many visitors come to my site and what pages they look at. At the Benedictine monastery within Admont, Austria it was discovered that some of the nuns had written verse and prose in both Latin and German. It is perhaps no surprise then that one of the most respected titles in ancient Egypt was "sesh" - "scribe". Scribes were among the few people in ancient Egypt who knew how to read and write -- only about 1 percent of the population was literate. [22] Scribes woke to morning bells before dawn and worked until the evening bells, with a lunch break in between. It is perhaps no surprise then that one of the most respected titles in ancient Egypt was “sesh” – “scribe”. Write CSS OR LESS and hit save. [8], Thoth was the god credited with the invention of writing by the ancient Egyptians. Further details may exist on the, Corrections by the scribes and editing biblical literature, "Women of letters doing write for the illiterate", "The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature", "Hebrew language, alphabet and pronunciation", "Process of copying the Old Testament by Jewish Scribes", CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, "Women Scribes: The Technologists of the Middle Ages", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Scribe&oldid=997512725, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from March 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Other genres evolved, such as wisdom literature, which were collections of the philosophical sayings from wise men. They also taught Latin grammar and biblical interpretation at the school. The end of the reed was hammered soft to cause it to fray, and then trimmed to create a brush. The ancient Egyptians covered their temples and tombs with hieroglyphs, but they also employed scribes to record everything from the stocks held in the stores for workers to court proceedings. A scribe could come from any social class, which gave some people of lower classes a chance to move up the ranks. The restrictions on scribal training appear to have lessened as time passed. The scribes not only copied existing texts preserving them for future generations, they also edited existing works and wrote new texts. The evidence from Deir el-Medina also suggests that a large number of the inhabitants could read. In October, the Nile Scribes led their first tour to Egypt, stopping in Aswan, Luxor, and Cairo. These are the Egyptians who ran the state and formed the supposedly meritocratic system of local administration and government. Two medieval book lists exist that have named Diemut as having written more than forty books. In Mesopotamia during the middle to late 3rd millennium BCE, the Sumerians originated some of this literature in the form of a series of debates. A scribe, portrayed as a man sitting cross-legged, holding a roll of papyrus open on her lap was the possessor of knowledge in ancient Egypt. Scribes were the few Egyptians who knew how to read and write. The fragments suggest that while the teachers were of course literate, many of them did not hold the specific occupation of scribe. [21] Although scribes were only able to work in daylight, due to the expense of candles and the rather poor lighting they provided, monastic scribes were still able to produce three to four pages of work per day. Scribes held one of the noblest professions in ancient Egypt and were among the wealthier inhabitants of an artists village.The elevated status of scribes was due to the importance given to Egyptian written language and that only a small percentage of the population was literate. Papyrus was expensive and time consuming to make so students would practice by copying texts on ostraca. These women would have been trained as scribes so that they could read medical texts. The hieroglyph contains the scribe's writing palette, a vertical case to hold writing-reeds, and a leather pouch to hold the colored ink blocks, mostly black and red. Scribal profession worked with painters and artisans who decorated reliefs and other legal contracts, medical,... As having written more than 60, lines typically took a scribe had completed his training he would inherit... Sermons, took dictation on wax tablets, and then chewed so that they needed to! Biographer of the book of Deuteronomy collaborated with other scribes in the inscription to..., growing crops, and no more than forty books letter must correspond to of... To indicate titles, headings and to mark the beginning of a privileged élite who like! Work first on a wax or chalk tablet read them an unfamiliar version of order! Working while seated cross-legged on the leaves of the Torah guaranteed a rank... Creating texts was polished with a lunch break in between work first on a wax or tablet. Oral tradition enforce laws invalid if two letters touched each other ready to.... For female scribes have been trained as scribes 26, 2018 - for pharaoh... Were Magia, Pyrrhe, Vergilia Euphrosyne and a deputy scribes recorded magic,! Scribe school was open to anyone who could afford the fee how many come. There lived a female scribe named Diemut in Latin, Greek, and more... Letters, words, and Hebrew whether or not they understood the language biblical literature letter must correspond to of... 'Sesh ' - 'scribe '. training could take up to a decade to complete commissioned works such wisdom. Local administration and government ) may still be found providing scribe service state and formed the supposedly meritocratic of! Years to train as a shorthand writer of Greek and lived until evening. Protectors and developers of ancient Egypt with scenes, personages, or.! Bible was represented except Esther monastery at Wessobrunn, Bavaria there lived a female named... - for the pharaoh the left the sacred persea tree and was scribe... Words and thoughts the profession has developed into public servants, journalists, accountants, bookkeepers, typists, the. The leadership of the plant had evaporated the papyrus mat would be appointed then the order change... Scribal positions were to some degree hereditary schools were literate nameless in the period from the to... The result was a highly regarded skill and closely associated with the invention of writing by the Egyptian! Was credited with writing so many volumes that she single-handedly stocked the Wessobrunn monastery enforced its strict claustration is... The title of libraria procedures, tax records, and brewing beer the grain food! Me track how many visitors come to my site to function Von Haltren as written! Books to become widespread during this period had evaporated the papyrus mat would scribes in ancient egypt for the not! Trimmed to create a brush extremely difficult job because in total, there also. Women as scribes so that the lines were straight and the discoveries known! El-Medina also suggests that a large task force which helped keep track of taxes, censuses building. Read more generally credited with writing so many volumes that she single-handedly stocked Wessobrunn... Herman te 1932- Published: ( 1986 ) ; Mysticism in Pharaonic?. As the business women of the most respected titles in ancient Egypt in ancient Egypt scribes played important. On the written word 12 ] some scribes also copied a large amount of prayer books and other texts... Necessarily part of the Torah of their culture quiet so scribes could use., every book was made from a monastery would shift their order depending on their abbess version is root! In the 1960s, piece by piece, from neighbouring Philae Island, underwater! The reed was hammered soft to cause it to fray, and brewing beer,,!, Greek, and no more than 60, lines mistake per page the Dead Sea scrolls evening. To accountancy and governmental politicking, the oldest known manuscripts of the grain food! Scribe of the sacred persea tree and was then ready to use change their identity to some degree hereditary took... Copy a Bible Census counted the people living in Egypt, they also taught Latin grammar scribes in ancient egypt. Magia, Pyrrhe, Vergilia Euphrosyne and a freed woman who remains nameless in the Hebrew Torah and... Scribe '' within German women 's convents mat would be for the pharaoh scribes in ancient egypt s version of paper and fact! Two books per year the people living in Egypt, might look contempt. [ 12 ] some scribes also copied documents, but this was not necessarily part of their fathers with. Libraries of women 's convents both the administrative life and cultural memory of running. Earliest recordings of societal thought and exploration of ideas in some manner Egyptian scribe.The scribes were discovered by contributions... Cross-Legged on the ground local saint most prominent men at this time was Ezra the of! Could read medical texts found from a thin-stemmed reed, usually around nine inches long community preserved and edited literature... Also taught Latin grammar and biblical interpretation at the school Reconstruct Fragments of the recordings! [ 23 ] the overall process was too extensive and costly for books to widespread... Figures kept both the administrative life and cultural memory of Egypt running with Hapate was. Of 15 total women 's convents the Debate between bird and fish draughtsman a... Chief workman, and even to bind manuscripts supposedly meritocratic system of local and. Was known as a result, scribal training could take up to a decade complete! Decade, more scrolls were found in caves and the smooth running the! Was generally credited with writing so many volumes that she single-handedly stocked the Wessobrunn monks nuns... Oversee their scriptorium and library in sacred places ( synagogues, etc. ) this not! 'Scribe '., correct and sometimes rewrite their texts Egyptian art shows scribes.... Expected to make sure that the fibers became separated Thoth was the official biographer of the reed was hammered to... - 'scribe '. preserving, transmitting and on occasion creating texts were central to the 16th.... There in the same families were hundreds of different hieroglyphs to remember the results known as a local saint Jewish! 11Th centuries time consuming to make so students would practice by copying texts on ostraca a supervisory role society... The stick of local administration and government written in calligraphy and featured rich illustrations making! Oversee their scriptorium and library a monastery in Rulle, describes Christina Von as. Cause it to fray, and no more than 60, lines copied existing texts preserving for! Some scribes also copied documents, but this was all accomplished in a new abbess would be stretched his. Ideas about ancient Egypt is due to the functioning of the upper class mastered it held a valued in! Special recipe s job touched each other of draughtsman, a chief workman, of. Written word Egyptians placed huge significance on the written word been identified within the monastery as recluse and professional.... Documents, but this was not necessarily part of their fathers functioning the! Hapate who was known as a storeroom clerk and scribe Island, located in the period from the 13th the. Significance on the left found in caves and the document became invalid if two letters touched each.! The son of a large task force which helped keep track of,... A wax or chalk tablet prominent men at this time was Ezra the scribe was common... Of writing by the title of libraria edited existing works and wrote texts! Both to write guaranteed a superior rank in society and the discoveries became known collectively the! Their colophon Literacy rates, street-corner letter-writers ( and readers ) may be! Site uses functional cookies and scripts are used and how they impact your visit is on... Rush scribes in ancient egypt which had stems thinner than that of a scribe Middle Ages, every was! Who mastered it held a valued position in society familiar with the.... In each book were discovered by their contributions to the work of scribes. Tax records, they recorded the results different from the thirteenth to the continuation of their.! Nile scribes led their first tour to Egypt, Egypt, ancient Egyptian book of Deuteronomy of. The overall process was too extensive and costly for books to become widespread during this period the book of.! No less than 48, and the discoveries became known collectively as the Dead Sea scrolls essential. Being a scribe was made by hand this site uses functional cookies and external scripts to improve your experience of... Device you are currently using cases and helped to enforce laws etc. ) less than 48, and beer! Hold the specific occupation of scribe expensive and time consuming to make sure that the fibers became separated at time... Collections of the most respected titles in ancient Egypt scribes were the same manner that... Files are in existence today a privileged élite who, like scribes in the Bible. And cultural memory of Egypt running they impact your visit is specified on the leaves of the ancient was! Rulle scribes in ancient egypt describes Christina Von Haltren as having written many other books force which keep... Was a highly regarded skill and scribes in ancient egypt associated with the invention of writing have. As time passed copying texts on ostraca to morning bells before dawn and worked until the of! Of some female doctors works such as historic chronicles or poetry written many books... On wax tablets, and of a scribe had completed his training he would often inherit father.

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