who was the first chancellor of germany

Vertretungsregelungen für das Amt des Bundeskanzlers und des Bundespräsidenten (AZ: WD 3-3000-016/14), p. 3–4. At 28 he was the youngest deputy in the Reichstag. Often involved in conflicts over his support of social-welfare measures with the right wing of his party (which was dominated by representatives of heavy industry), he attracted general notice at his first appearance at a party congress in 1906. Of Jewish extraction, Stresemann’s charming and elegant wife played a leading role in Berlin society of the 1920s. Ute Mager, in: von Münch/Kunig: Grundgesetz-Kommentar II, 5. The Basic Law does not state, who shall perform the Chancellor's powers and duties, if both the Chancellor and the Vice Chancellor are unable to do so. The chancellor is the head of government and, according to the constitution, gives this title of deputy to one of the Federal Ministers. 69, Rn. This is the case, if a newly elected Bundestag meets for the first time, or, if the Chancellor dies or resigns. In the Federal Republic (since 1949), the Chancellors have had no interest in allowing the Deputy to use the title for self promotion. With French foreign minister Aristide Briand, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1926 for his policy of reconciliation and negotiation.   FDP   SPD The German Vice Chancellor can be regarded as the equivalent of a deputy prime minister in other parliamentary systems. A general deputy has been introduced only in 1878 by law (Stellvertretungsgesetz). The most known office holder is Franz von Papen, a former Chancellor who formed a coalition government of national socialists and conservatives.   CDU A GERMAN politician has demanded Chancellor Angela Merkel should be the "very first to be vaccinated" with the coronavirus jab. No one anticipated— really could have anticipated what was to come. He was the only one of five children able to attend high school and university. (Reporting by Madeline Chambers; Editing by Daniel Wallis)   FVP, Political Party: By Steven Brown PUBLISHED: 19:51, Fri, … Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. At school he displayed an unusual gift for history, especially modern history. Angela Merkel is a German politician best known as the first female chancellor of Germany and one of the architects of the European Union. He energetically defended the interests of the commercial middle class, but his advocacy of extended social-welfare legislation embroiled him in a conflict with the representatives of his party’s right wing, which in 1912 prevented his reelection to the National Liberal Party executive committee. .mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}  FKP The Chancellor is elected by the Bundestag and appointed by the President of Germany. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. 9. https://www.bundesregierung.de/breg-de/themen/geschaeftsordnung-der-bundesregierung-459846, "Gesetz, betreffend die Stellvertretung des Reichskanzlers ["Stellvertretungsgesetz"] (17.03.1878)", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Vice-Chancellor_of_Germany&oldid=993948314, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Deputy Minister-President (until 14 August 1919) /, This page was last edited on 13 December 2020, at 09:57. It is common that the title is given to the major minister … The German cabinet consists of the Chancellor and the Federal Ministers. As a Dresden city councillor from 1906 to 1912 and editor of the Dresden magazine Sächsische Industrie (“Saxon Industry”), Stresemann became a well-known writer on economics and an expert on municipal affairs.   Green, German Empire (Allgemeiner Stellvertreter des Reichskanzlers), Weimar Republic (Allgemeiner Stellvertreter des Reichskanzlers). Mattel, Inc. has even produced a Barbie Doll … He believed in the spiritual, military, and economic superiority of the German Empire, and his political idealism manifested itself in a sentimental enthusiasm for the heroic liberalism of the revolutions of 1848, as well as in a romantic style of speech. Frederick III died from cancer of the larynx at age 56, having ruled for just 99 days. [5] In 2012, Forbes magazine ranked German Chancellor Angela Merkel as the world’s second most powerful person and the highest-ranked female ever. Georg Hermes, in: Horst Dreier (Hrsg.) By this time Stresemann, who had moved to Berlin, was one of the best-known leaders of German economic life. By 1902 he had founded the Saxon Manufacturers’ Association, and as its legal representative until 1911, he occupied an important position in economic life at the age of 25. And there was nothing stopping him from doing the same with Adolf Hitler. Strongly represented in Saxony at the time, the party became Stresemann’s political home. If this happens, the President of Germany appoints the former Chancellor or, if this is not possible, one of the former cabinet ministers (not necessarily, but most likely the former Vice Chancellor) as Acting Chancellor, until the parliament elects a new Chancellor. The party chairman, Ernst Bassermann, helped to advance his political career, and Stresemann was soon considered Bassermann’s “crown prince.” Stresemann was primarily interested in economic policy both as a journalist and a deputy. He was especially interested in the lives of great personalities, particularly Napoleon and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, both of whom fascinated him throughout his life and inspired several of his literary studies. He was elected in 1907 to the Reichstag (parliament) as a National Liberal from the Annaberg district in the Saxon metal-mining country, thus gaining a foothold in national politics. The appointment is an exclusive power of the Chancellor. After initially sympathizing with the ideas of the Protestant social reformer Friedrich Naumann and collaborating with his National Social Union, Stresemann joined the National Liberal Party in 1903. 69. This tradition faded away in the time of Merkel's office, partially, because political heavyweights of the coalition partner chose a different ministry for personal preference. [6] Since 1966 it became customary that the coalition partner of the governing party received the ministry of the exterior who was also appointed Deputy. Stresemann’s many offices brought him financial independence. Professor of Modern History, Postgraduate School for Administrative Sciences, Speyer, Germany. Chancellor (Kanzler) is the traditional term for the German head of government since 1867/71. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Recognizing the importance of the press in influencing public opinion, he took advantage of it to support his aims. He won respect for Germany's handing of the first coronavirus wave but is now facing some criticism for a slow vaccine rollout. Auflage 2006, Art. His wife, whom he married in 1903, was the sister of a fraternity brother and the daughter of the Berlin industrialist Adolf Kleefeld. [3] It is however unclear, whether this provision extends to other powers of the office of Chancellor. Although Stellvertreter is the constitutional term, most Germans know the Deputy by the expression Vice Chancellor (Vizekanzler). Last Updated: 10th January, 2021 15:29 IST Germany Health Minister Spahn Considering Run For Chancellor To Replace Merkel: Reports Jens Spahn is reportedly looking to run for chancellery in the next parliamentary elections in September 2021 to replace the current officeholder Angela Merkel. In every day politics, being a vice chancellor is more an honorary title. On January 30, 1933, Adolf Hitler was appointed as the chancellor of Germany by President Paul Von Hindenburg. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). After completing his studies, Stresemann began his professional career in a trade association. In such a case the Federal President assigns a minister to serve as acting chancellor until the Bundestag (parliament) elects a new chancellor.[1]). [2] When in 1974 Chancellor Willy Brandt resigned and refused to remain in office until his successor's election, President Gustav Heinemann ensured a corresponding precedent and appointed former Vice Chancellor Walter Scheel as Acting Chancellor. Sachstand. The vice chancellor may head cabinet meetings when the chancellor is abroad. As a member of the pan-German Deutscher Kolonialverein (German Colonial League) and an advocate of a strong naval construction program, he supported the imperialist goals of German policy carried out under the aegis of Alfred von Tirpitz and Bernhard, Fürst (prince) von Bülow. Updates? From early childhood he displayed a strong “inclination toward solitude,” as he put it as a student, as well as a tendency to be melancholy and to daydream. The Deputy to the Federal Chancellor (German: Stellvertreter des Bundeskanzlers), commonly known as Vice Chancellor (Vizekanzler), is the second highest ranking German cabinet member. The end of a Chancellor's term in office (either by death or resignation or the first meeting of a newly elected Bundestag) automatically terminates the office of any minister. [4], The office was initially established by the 1878 Stellvertretungsgesetz (Deputation Act), which provided for the Imperial Chancellor appointing a deputy, officially known as Allgemeiner Stellvertreter des Reichskanzlers (General Deputy to the Imperial Chancellor). Helmut Kohl, (born April 3, 1930, Ludwigshafen am Rhein, Germany—died June 16, 2017, Ludwigshafen am Rhein), German politician who served as chancellor of West Germany from 1982 to 1990 and of the reunified German nation from 1990 to 1998. He was appointed by Chancellor Angela Merkel (CDU) to the position on 14 March 2018 and also serves as the Federal Minister of Finance. 7, 17-19. Adolf Hitler became Chancellor, and Papen Vice Chancellor. A chancellor's election is necessary whenever the office of Chancellor has fallen vacant. Corrections? Author of. Stresemann, attending the Universities of Berlin and Leipzig from 1897 to 1900, first studied literature and history but changed to economics, probably to improve his professional prospects rather than in recognition of his practical gifts. Hindenburg made the appointment in an effort to keep Hitler and the Nazi Party “in check;” however, the decision would have disastrous results for Germany and the entire European continent. He had been appointed chancellor by the President of Germany, who had appointed and dismissed three chancellors in the previous 12 months. Hitler's government was fairly fragile at that point. The Deputy is thought only as a replacement for the current Chancellor. the Vice President in presidential systems of government is that the German Vice Chancellor is not the automatic successor of a Chancellor suddenly leaving office. Wissenschaftlicher Dienst des Bundestages.   Centre 69, Rn. This kind of substitution has never been made use of in the history of the Federal Republic. In addition to the general deputy, who would be responsible for all the affairs of the Chancellor, the Chancellor could appoint deputies with limited responsibilities.   DDP Please select which sections you would like to print: While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. The ministry of the exterior was considered to be the most important cabinet post besides the Chancellorship. In 1888, Germany had three emperors: Wilhelm I, Frederick III, and Wilhelm II. It was used against him in future political struggles by right-wing opposition. Its current Chancellor is Angela Merkel and it plays a central role in the European Union. The Deputy to the Federal Chancellor (German: Stellvertreter des Bundeskanzlers), commonly known as Vice Chancellor (Vizekanzler), is the second highest ranking German cabinet member. BERLIN (AP) — Chancellor Angela Merkel says officials have agreed to extend Germany’s lockdown until Jan 31. The function of vice chancellor is to use the specific constitutional powers of the chancellor in case that the chancellor is unable to perform her duties. As a liberal Prussian Protestant, Stresemann became a typical representative of the chauvinistic spirit prevailing in imperial Germany. Auflage 2001, Rn. While a student he belonged to a relatively progressive fraternity and retained a lifelong attachment to the sentimental glories of student life. The Chancellor is theoretically free to choose his or her deputy. He was known for his organizational gifts, knew how to handle people, and was aware of the power he wielded. Germany’s long-serving chancellor didn’t make it any easier as she failed to actively promote a successor—the flipside to her being the first chancellor ever in Germany’s postwar history to decide herself when to the end her own political career, after announcing she will step down after the next election, scheduled for the fall of 2021. They had two sons. Roman Herzog, in: Maunz/Dürig: Kommentar zum Grundgesetz, 2008, Art. Tirpitz had served as state secretary of the Imperial Naval Office, in which post he created the German battle fleet, and Bülow was chancellor of Germany (1900–1909). Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. The current office or title exists since the constitution of 1949. In an expertise issued by the Bundestag's scientific service in 2014, the legal opinion is that this is the case. Spahn was a fierce critic of Merkel's 2015 open-door migrant policy and lost a CDU leadership election in 2018. The Federal Republic of Germany, with 83 million inhabitants, is … Gustav Stresemann, (born May 10, 1878, Berlin, Germany—died October 3, 1929, Berlin), chancellor (1923) and foreign minister (1923, 1924–29) of the Weimar Republic, largely responsible for restoring Germany’s international status after World War I. Unusually rapid success in commerce gave him a springboard into politics. It is common that the title is given to the major minister provided by the (smaller) coalition partner. He presided over the integration of East Germany into West Germany in 1990 and thus became the first chancellor of a unified Germany … A German cabinet exists only as long as the current Chancellor is in office. In contrast to the appointment of a cabinet minister, there is no need for a formal appointment by the President. According to the Basic Law (Article 69.1), the Chancellor appoints one of the ministers as Vice Chancellor. Omissions? In the Weimar Republic, the office was considered less important and was usually held by the minister of justice or the interior. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Merkel became the first female Chancellor of Germany in 2005 and is serving her fourth term. Should a chancellor resign, die or be permanently unable to perform her duties, the vice chancellor does not automatically replace her. A very important difference to e.g. Nevertheless, a German government is usually based on a coalition of two or more parties and the Chancellor gives the title to a minister of the second largest coalition party upon recommendation of that party's leadership. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox.   SPD The act was revised on 28 October 1918, when the possibility of appointing deputies with limited responsibilities was removed and the Vice-Chancellor was given the right to appear before parliament.[5]. After losing his seat in the new Reichstag elections in the same year, he traveled with other business leaders to the United States to study economic conditions. Germany’s male politicians were the first to make the mistake of underestimating Merkel. 10/11 zu Art. The German cabinet's rules of procedure state that in absence of both office-holders cabinet meetings shall be chaired by a cabinet member designated for this purpose by either the Chancellor or the Vice Chancellor or, if such a designation has not taken place or if the designee is not able to do so, by the present cabinet member with the longest uninterrupted membership in the federal government (§22.1). BERLIN - If Dr Angela Merkel was worried about her party legacy, she now has one reason to worry less. Gustav Stresemann, (born May 10, 1878, Berlin, Germany—died October 3, 1929, Berlin), chancellor (1923) and foreign minister (1923, 1924–29) of the Weimar Republic, largely responsible for restoring Germany’s international status after World War I.With French foreign minister Aristide Briand, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1926 for his policy of … He occupied leading positions in a number of trade associations, including the German-American Economic Association, established at his suggestion. It became soon obvious that the position of Vice Chancellor provided no powers and was unsuited to constrain Hitler. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Gustav-Stresemann, The Nobel Prize - Biography of Gustav Stresemann, History Learning Site - Biography of Gustav Stresemann, Spartacus Educational - Biography of Gustav Stresemann, First World War - Who's Who: Gustav Stresemann, Gustav Stresemann - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). The first Social Democrat-led government of West Germany introduces a new Eastern Europe policy.   DNVP, Political Party: In 1900 he received his doctorate with a dissertation entitled “The Growth of the Berlin Bottled-Beer Industry.” The subject of his study, based on his knowledge of his father’s business and dealing with the decline of a sector of small business as a result of competition from giant industry, was characteristic of his origins as well as of his point of view. In the Weimar Republic of 1919-1933, the office of Vizekanzler was mentioned in the internal reglement of the government. Hitler’s emergence as chancellor on January 30, 1933, marked a crucial turning point for Germany and, ultimately, for the world. Political Party: Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Germany's Spahn Mulls Running as Chancellor for Merkel's Party - Bild Merkel has said she will not run for a fifth term in the election and her Christian Democrats (CDU) are to … The current Vice Chancellor of Germany is Olaf Scholz (SPD). As an administrative assistant in the German Chocolate Makers’ Association from 1901 to 1904, he gained a reputation as an accomplished organizer and negotiator. Grundgesetz-Kommentar, Band 2, 2. Stresemann was the son of Ernst Stresemann, a Berlin innkeeper and beer distributor. Delivered right to your inbox internal reglement of the Chancellor dies or resigns minister Aristide Briand, he the... Unusually rapid success in commerce gave him a springboard into politics Chancellor does not automatically replace.. Three chancellors in the internal reglement of the Chancellor is in office Stresemann., 2008, Art and conservatives Wilhelm II is that this is the traditional term for the German Chancellor. Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content die or be permanently unable to perform her,! Manual or other sources if you have suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ) a Vice Chancellor be! Is in office, having ruled for just 99 days now facing some criticism for a slow vaccine rollout extend. Influencing public opinion, he was known for his policy of reconciliation and negotiation students! Wife played a leading role in Berlin society of the Ministers as Vice Chancellor can be regarded the... Took advantage of it to support his aims: Kommentar zum Grundgesetz,,! And high school students, knew how to handle people, and information from Britannica! 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