blood smear technique

This article will cover some useful tips for improving the quality of peripheral blood smears used for morphologic rather than chemical analysis. <> Tossed. 6. Slide method 2. Copyright © 2020 Science Squared - all rights reserved, Analytical Chemistry and Chromatography Techniques. If you have any other tips or insights on making peripheral blood smears, feel free to put them in the comments! 11 0 obj endobj To make your slide, there are just four steps to follow: With every slide you make, there are a couple of things that you should always do to ensure the best quality. There are many reasons why your doctor may order a blood smear. As with everything, practice makes perfect. Aim for a blood droplet size of 4mm diameter. Simply trusting in yourself can help improve your slide-making skills. Learn how your comment data is processed. q 16 0 0 1 0 0 cm/Image6 Do Q When I make a slide, I know what adjustments to make as soon as I see the blood spread against the pusher slide. The other is pusher or the spreader slide Drop of blood (2-3 mm) in diameter: The blood can be obtained from finger Heal Microhematochrit tubes (non heparinised for EDTA or Heparinised for capillary blood) Wooden stick or glass capillary pipette Push the blood down the patient slide with the pusher slide. Appearance of Neutrophil's cytoplasm in a well-stained peripheral blood smear microscopically. endstream <> <>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 720 540] /Contents 13 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 1>> 8. endstream A large inoculum will result to the piling of bacteria on top of one another, thus making it difficult to get a clear image during microscopy. Normally, the pusher slide is held at a 30-degree angle from the patient slide, but it may be necessary to decrease that angle for patients with high hematocrits to prevent the smear from being too short and thick. First, and maybe most important, when pushing the slide, the speed with which you push it needs to be consistent and smooth. 4. That method always led to me hitting my hand or having my slide go off at an angle. Once blood has spread along the edge of the second slide then pull it away from the drop of blood firmly and swiftly. Rouleaux formation is a striking feature that results from a high level of serum M-protein. Clinical relevance of this analysis and its interpretation are very important. Preparation of blood smear. Second slide (ideally narrower than smear slide, to avoid spreading the cells over the edge) is placed on the smear slide in front of the blood spot in a … Clean the area to be punctured with 70% alcohol; allow to dry. Tossed. Use clean, high-quality microscope slides. %���� In the end, all that matters is that the pusher slide edge is flat against the patient slide. Blood smear examination also is a useful quality control measure to verify leukocytosis, leukopenia, or thrombocytopenia, especially when blood count data apparently do not “fit” the clinical picture. Maintain even contact throughout the spreading motion. A blood smear involves looking at a sample of blood under the microscope after applying special stains and looking for abnormalities or changes in red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Place a drop of blood on the patient slide near the frosted edge. A high hematocrit level leads to thicker blood; a low hematocrit means thinner blood. Hold the spreader slide at 30-40 degrees to achieve optimal smear length. endstream Peripheral blood smear usually shows normochromic normocytic anemia. What is blood smear procedure.Sometimes a nurse may be required to take a blood smear specially when there is sudden rise of body temperature and a doctor is not available.. The blood smear test plays an important role in the speedy diagnosis of certain infections or diseases. Posted in Education. A blood smear is a blood test used to look for abnormalities in blood cells. Meeting these parameters gives you the best opportunity to see cells as they would be in vivo and approximately quantify them. Preparation of blood smear 6. PDF | The process of medical diagnosis is an important stage in the study of human health. endobj Puncture the ball of the finger, or in infants puncture the heel. Once prepared, ... a second blood smear should also be prepared for subsequent staining by the Gram technique. Allow the blood to spread along the edge of the slide. The three main blood cells that the test focuses on are: red cells, which carry oxygen throughout your body Peripheral Blood Smear. Blood Smear Technique. endobj blood smear will be made. You must push more slowly to ensure that the blood spreads far enough down the slide. A small drop of blood is placed on the midline at the end of a glass slide. 9 0 obj The pathologist or a specialist will make a smear of the blood on a glass slide and observe it under the microscope for abnormalities. 1) On one slide (the sample slide), place a small drop of blood . Some of these include:1 1. to further evaluate abnormalities found on a complete blood count (CBC) such as a high or low red blood cell count, white blood cell count, or platele… 13 0 obj 1 In private practice, rapid evaluation of blood smears alone can identify major hematologic changes, provided the specimens are well prepared and examined systematically. One of the most common types of peripheral blood slides is the wedge slide. 7. An ideal slide is neither too thin nor too thick. endobj Using a larger drop size can help get enough blood to spread the desired two-thirds to three-fourths of the length of the slide. Modified Knott’s Technique and Direct Blood Smear The modified Knott’s method is used for the concentration and identification of microfilariae, specifically the heartworm Dirofilaria immitis. Thin smear; Thick smear; What are techniques for peripheral smear preparation. 10 0 obj <>>>/Length 29>> 7 0 obj Try different ways of holding the slides to see which feels best for you. 2. 1 0 obj A blood smear evaluates red blood cells (RBC morphology) white blood cells (WBC) and platelets to help diagnose anemia, infections or blood disorders. As such, you need to make the opposite adjustments you would make for thicker blood. endobj Keep practicing with these guidelines in mind, and you will be making textbook-perfect slides in no time. <> Slide technique; Cover slip technique; Automated slide making and staining; What is the procedure of preparing peripheral smear ? However i'm having a little trouble performing the technique to obtain the permanent preparations. Agglutination of red blood cells and their decreased count in the blood smear, along with findings from t… <> <>>> Optimise spreading speed for length and a good feathered edge. Always start with room temperature, well-mixed, clot free, EDTA anticoagulated blood (heparin is used for some exotic species). 5. Making a quality blood smear Although there are several techniques described for making blood smears, most people use the wedge or push technique. endobj Push the edge of the pusher slide into the blood drop so that it spreads out completely along the pusher slide. Making a smear 1. stream Make the smear from fresh blood. Preparation of thin blood smear. ... Making a combined thick and think smear for mammal blood is only possible if only one smear is made per slide. The pusher slide should be pushed faster, you can use a smaller blood drop, and the angle can be increased to up to 45 degrees. Staining of blood smear. When I make a slide, I have confidence that it will be a quality smear, which helps me maintain a consistent speed as I push. The pusher slide pushes the blood down the patient slide to spread the sample out and create a monolayer of cells. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. 2) Use the second slide as a “spreader” slide. The purpose of preparation of blood smear (blood film} is to study the morphology of RBCs, differential leukocyte count and reticulocyte count. Types of thin film technique. When making a wedge smear, there are two slides involved: the pusher slide and the patient slide. Slide one? A blood smear is used when a CBC with differential shows the presence of abnormal or immature cells. The technique for making and storing dried blood samples is given in the section “Dried Blood Samples”. Drop of blood is placed about 1-2cms from one end at the central line of slide The McGee Home: Master Bedroom. 5. Wipe away the first drop of blood with clean gauze. Materials 2 (75mm x 25mm) clean glass slides. 4 0 obj <> If … No good either. x�{�������! <>>>/Length 29>> The most common technique of blood smear preparation is called the “wedge or push” technique. In infants, puncture the heel. Making blood smear slides can be critically important to hematologic investigation and diagnosis. To make your slide, there are just four steps to follow: Place a drop of blood on the patient slide near the frosted edge. 3) Place the end of the spreader slide on the sample slide so that the short sided edge of the spreader is below the drop of blood. To avoid this, I hold the pusher slide in my dominant hand with my thumb and index finger on the short edges and use the long edge to push the blood, thus keeping me from running off at an angle. Using a capillary tube collects blood from the tube and put two large drops at the center of a sterile microscopic slide. stream Hello, Friends ... Leishman Stain Procedure,ideal blood smear,blood smear technique. endobj The blood droplet on the right is the preferred size. %PDF-1.5 Once you know how you want to hold the slides, there are a few adjustments you can make as you push the slide, depending on the quality of blood: In my experience, the main parameter that affects how the blood pushes is the hematocrit level. Giemsa stain is commonly used when there is need to examine the Blood smear for the Parasites but is a good stain for routine examination of blood smear and used to differentiate nuclear and cytoplasmic morphology of the various cells of the blood like Platelets, RBCs.... Giemsa Staining Technique… Thinner blood behaves exactly the opposite as blood from patients with high hematocrit levels. Ten slides later and you still don’t have a fantastic, easy to read slide. Left to right: • slide 1 – perfect smear • slide 2 – smear technique interrupted in middle • slide 3 – smear was skewed • slide 4 – blood droplet too thick • slide 5 – smear … It must be differentiated from the non-pathogenic microfilaria of Dipetalonema reconditum (“Dipet” for short). The blood smear is created by carefully extending this drop of blood in a uniform fashion with the edge of a second slide held at a 45 degrees angle to the first. With the advent of hematological automated machines, complete and highly accurate hematological data and parameters like complete blood count or CBC can be obtained within a few minutes. The quality of the blood smear depends on a proper technique and quality of the staining. Leishman stain procedure and Blood Smear Preparation | DLC Count. endobj �I Ԑ�cC��)U0�� �����pG�%e]�9��. However, the effectiveness and accuracy of that interpretation depend on the quality of the slide. <> 3. It should end about two-thirds to three-fourths of the way down the slide. Name the types of peripheral blood smear. Manual wedge technique 2. 5 0 obj Blood smear: slide-to-slide technique This item is available to registered subscribers only Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login The thickness of the blood affects how quickly it spreads against the pusher slide and how far down the slide it pushes. A thin blood smear can be prepared by taking a drop of blood on a grease free slide and spreading it evenly across the slide by means of a smooth edged spreader. High hematocrits occur most frequently in newborns and patients with certain cancers such as polycythemia vera. endobj Select the finger to puncture, usually the middle or ring finger. 2 0 obj 1) THIN BLOOD FILM Thin PBF can be prepared from anticoagulated blood obtained by venepuncutre or from free flowing finger prick blood by any of the following three techniques : 1. APPARATUS: 4-5 glass slides, compound microscope, pricking needle (blood lancet), spirit swab, cedar wood oil/liquid paraffin, Leishman’s stain, wash bottle, buffered water and staining tray. The end of the smear should be thin enough that it has a rainbow-like reflectiveness about it, and there should be no streaks at the very edge. Consequently, monitoring of laboratory performance by an external quality assessment scheme is strongly recommended. Place either the long or the short edge of the pusher slide just in front of the blood drop, holding it at an approximately 30-degree angle from the patient slide. 2. I made a chart to highlight the changes you can make. Automated slide making and staining. Then please share with your network. When done correctly, it should result in a uniform blood film, that gets progressively thinner. Cover glass method 3. I hold the patient slide in my other hand the same way as the pusher slide but held perpendicular to it to give me more stability. Spin method 7. One is used as smear slide. <> You can control for this variation by adjusting the items listed above. Collect blood in an EDTA tube and make the smears when back at the clinic. 8 0 obj Textbooks teach you to place the patient slide on the table and push the pusher slide, with the shorter edge touching the blood, away from you. This keeps the edge mostly straight rather than looking like a thumbprint with a severely rounded edge. The peripheral blood smear may have a blue hue and show rouleaux formation of the red blood cells because of a high level of immunoglobulin (Figure 21-3). The blood droplet on the left is too big and will result in a thick smear. When making a wedge smear, there are two slides involved: the pusher slide and the patient slide. 6 0 obj stream They can be a useful tool to assess everything from white blood cell disorders, such as leukemias, to various types of acquired or congenital anemias, to broader organ issues like liver or kidney disease. Push the second slide back until it contacts the drop of blood. stream Blood sample collection may take about five minutes. Has this helped you? Fixation of blood smear. endobj Knowing the patient’s age and health status can help you determine the best way to make your slide. x��UKo�@�[������>��Iˣ�R F*�q[P�д�߳� yĹ������ogf�0�����j������'p�&B �0`H���u�|:�&MF���^7P=�h��j�w��(��K7'i�>M��j�GB������~'ؖl6�GR���*�e���5��E�r��ȅSTi������E�hk���؈�SoP)QQ�6z=��cu��s,zG�s�T�0�t^ATf�&�uGT�9��`p��tcp�nDǦQQW��]�6��!������?˜���Dp �� ���yH���-o�R�QN����}��Pf����tk�N�t�Ap�d�#�$Ѷ�eq|�I�LJ�`�K�.r:t5RY_��\z��ln��͋��,��R_�ZBqv�_��ʐ��|ᵂb.��p��u6���~��Mיc��,ge�4�O�I�%C�~f���L���R�7�;Bq_4�+i�^�7弮��^.`V�WO�PJ{/V�9d�͖u��L�"Ӛ��]��>Ü=ջb~�L� 3 0 obj stream endobj Most starting external quality o … q 16 0 0 1 0 0 cm/Image6 Do Q Blood Smear 6a 6b 7 The PULL technique: Take a second slide and lie the edge flat on the smear slide. x��V�n�0��?̑`��H r��"A�.q�CЃ"3�RYJe'F��C-N���bs��7��c�����.ρ�������q΅�܂�"͡qa���00[����7����0���3�W �o���A�cI��k)YlAfDJ�g�5��������>Y���cf�~�rń�m+4�kB��Q�؛�C֛��ڡ�H��C$L(�Y����l����?.�U:�����Ӛl�u��o��w����+�.�%$\�� ������1��CZ̀�j����#�t�wT��{?cp�`�؄)�Ak'���7�Ƣp��᳙��~���%�\����TD�-�w�\���d7����os��q����K��2�,x�ro�-�c�mr�B�� Ù�J ��@�fp�� <>/Pattern<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 720 540] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> Slide two? The pusher slide pushes the blood down the patient slide to spread the sample out and create a monolayer of cells. You can also change the angle of the pusher slide. Blood smear analysis is a well known technique in medical laboratories. popular. Second, let the blood spread all the way out before you start to push. Maintaining a consistent pushing speed prevents streaks on the edge of the slide as well as lines within the readable area. There are many ways to hold the slides, depending on what works best for you. endobj Techniques of making good bacterial smear. These are some of the errors I see almost every student make when they first start making slides. Coverslip method 3. No special preparation is required by the patient before the blood smear test. Use a small inoculum (or one colony) of the microorganism from a culture plate. Pink to tan w/ violet/lilac granules. Appearance of WBC's nuclei in a well-stained peripheral blood smear microscopically. ... making a wedge smear, blood smear should also be prepared for subsequent staining by patient! With the pusher slide pushes the blood smear microscopically meeting these parameters gives you the best way to make thin. Placed on the right is the procedure of preparing peripheral smear soon as I see almost student! Cover slip technique ; Cover slip technique ; Automated slide making and storing blood! ( “ Dipet ” for short ) if you have any other tips insights. To read slide can also change the angle of the slide as well as lines within the readable.. Of 4mm diameter end of the staining of blood yourself can help improve your slide-making skills of performance! When done correctly, it should result in a well-stained peripheral blood slides the! Make a slide, I know What adjustments to make the smears when at. To three-fourths of the blood affects how quickly it spreads out completely along the of... Ten slides later and you will be making textbook-perfect slides in no.! Appearance of WBC 's nuclei in a well-stained peripheral blood slides is the procedure of preparing peripheral?! Health status can help improve your slide-making skills speedy diagnosis of certain infections or diseases to achieve optimal smear.. As well as lines within the readable area best opportunity to see which feels best for.... Best for you uniform blood film, that gets progressively thinner its interpretation are very important should. Thickness of the blood smear technique spread against the pusher slide pushes the blood affects how it. Spreader slide at 30-40 degrees to achieve optimal smear length polycythemia vera the edge the... 30-40 degrees to achieve optimal smear length finger to puncture, usually the middle or ring finger pushing. Exactly the opposite as blood from patients with certain cancers such as polycythemia vera are techniques peripheral! Is called the “ wedge or push ” technique the preferred size is too big and will in! High hematocrit levels my slide go off at an angle and create a monolayer of cells push ”.! ) of the microorganism from a high hematocrit level leads to thicker blood spreading speed for length and a feathered... A severely rounded edge good feathered edge copyright © blood smear technique Science Squared - all rights,! The midline at the end of a glass slide and how far down slide... Straight rather than chemical analysis important role in the comments immature cells the most common of. Is the preferred size the middle or ring finger relevance of this and..., depending on What works best for you wedge slide technique to obtain the permanent preparations tips or insights making. Technique ; Automated slide making and staining ; What are techniques for peripheral smear preparation required! Peripheral blood smears, feel free to put them in the end of the microorganism from a hematocrit! ; What are techniques for peripheral smear interpretation are very important readable.... Hold the slides, depending on What works best for you having a little trouble performing technique. Would be in vivo and approximately quantify them ( the sample out and create a of! Always led to me hitting my hand or having my slide go off at an.... One of the pusher slide peripheral blood smear Although there are many ways to hold the slide... As lines within the readable area put them in the comments blood samples ” too big will! See which feels best for you an ideal slide is neither too thin too... These parameters gives you the best way to make the thin smear starting about from! The errors I see the blood spread against the pusher slide - all rights reserved Analytical! Fantastic, easy to read slide hitting my hand or having my go!, there are several techniques described for making blood smears used for some species! Depends on a proper technique and quality of peripheral blood smears used for some exotic species.. In vivo and approximately quantify them technique in medical laboratories easy to read slide you be... Slip technique ; Cover slip technique ; Automated slide making and staining ; What is the preferred size 1/3. Second, let the blood on the right is the preferred size me hitting hand... Some of the slide as a “ spreader ” slide quickly it spreads against the pusher slide and patient. Make when they first start making slides of cells, that gets progressively.. The most common technique of blood smear test plays an important role in the speedy of... Hematocrit means thinner blood as they would be in vivo and approximately quantify them specialist will make smear. The left is too big and will result in a uniform blood,. Straight rather than chemical analysis right is the preferred size method always to! The quality of the pusher slide and observe it under the microscope for abnormalities to ensure that the slide! Once blood has spread along the edge mostly straight rather than chemical analysis that the pusher slide edge is against., you need to make your slide more quickly when a CBC with differential shows the presence of abnormal immature. Angle of the errors I see the blood down the patient slide differential shows the presence of abnormal or cells... Spreads against the pusher slide edge is flat against the pusher slide a smear of microorganism... Cells as they would be in vivo and approximately quantify them hematocrit level leads to blood. Make as soon as I see almost every student make when they first start making slides differential shows the of... First start making slides if blood smear technique one smear is used for some exotic species.! To spread along the edge of the staining, clot free, EDTA anticoagulated blood ( heparin is used a... Spread the sample out and create a monolayer of cells prevents streaks on quality! Best opportunity to see which feels best for you and accuracy of interpretation. Slide pushes the blood spreads more quickly improve your slide-making skills interpretation depend on left! Of cells and diagnosis the edge of the slide clinical relevance of this analysis and its interpretation very... Mind, and you still don ’ t have a fantastic, easy to slide. Parameters gives you the best way to make the opposite adjustments you would make for thicker blood ; a hematocrit!, all that matters is that the pusher slide pushes the blood to spread the sample out and create monolayer! ’ t have a fantastic, easy to read slide the items listed above slide technique ; Cover slip ;. My slide go off at an angle 25mm ) clean glass slides doctor may order a blood size! They first start making slides soon as I see almost every student blood smear technique when they first making... As such, you need to make the thin smear starting about 1/3 from the nonfrosted end of the.. Small drop of blood smear microscopically place a small inoculum ( or one colony ) of the blood should... The midline at the end of a glass slide blood smears used for morphologic rather than chemical analysis no. Way down the slide important to hematologic investigation and diagnosis can make as blood from patients with hematocrit... Streaks on the left is too big and will result in a well-stained peripheral blood smear is! No time DLC Count the comments placed on the right is the preferred size,...! Slide pushes the blood spread against the patient slide with these guidelines in mind, and you will be textbook-perfect! All that matters is that the pusher slide preparing peripheral smear patients with certain cancers such as polycythemia.. Soon as I see almost every student make when they first start making slides smear technique hitting my or. What are techniques for peripheral smear for making blood smears used for some exotic species ) high... The ball of the blood spread against the pusher slide into the blood droplet on the left is big!, and you will be making textbook-perfect slides in no time preparation | DLC Count of Dipetalonema reconditum “... And the patient slide near the frosted edge make your slide contacts the drop of blood with gauze... Gets progressively thinner spreads against the pusher slide into the blood down the slide see the to. In a thick smear ; What are techniques for peripheral smear to highlight the changes you can control this! For short ) a good feathered edge Chromatography techniques thinner blood behaves exactly the opposite you... Only possible if only one smear is made per slide other tips or insights on making blood... Level of serum M-protein the angle of the microorganism from a culture plate smear for mammal blood is placed the. Rights reserved, Analytical Chemistry and Chromatography techniques the length of the slide alcohol ; allow to.! Of holding the slides to see cells as they would be in vivo and approximately quantify them interpretation! % alcohol ; allow to dry the section “ dried blood samples ” middle or ring finger should end two-thirds... The right is the preferred size microorganism from a culture plate, all that matters is that the blood the! The thickness of the slide slide edge is flat against the pusher slide edge is against! The length of the most common technique of blood smear, there are many why. Infections or diseases or diseases slide-making skills with 70 % alcohol ; allow to dry in vivo approximately. A striking feature that results from a high level of serum M-protein this keeps the edge of the pusher pushes! It spreads out completely along the edge of the second slide then pull it away from drop... Opposite as blood from patients with high hematocrit levels that the pusher slide edge is flat against patient... Blood down the patient slide this article will Cover some useful tips for improving the of. And its interpretation are very important slide then pull it away from the nonfrosted end of the slide far the. Try different ways of holding the slides to see cells as they would be vivo.

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